Harvard College, A.B. in Philosophy s.c.l; Jewish Theological Seminary of America, M.H.L., Ordination; Brown University, Ph.D. in Religious Studies
Taught at Haifa University 1972-1984; University of Maryland, College Park 1984-1988; University of California, San Diego 1988-2017 retiring as a Distinguished Professor of History and Endowed Chair in Judaic Studies.
Rabbinic Instruction in Sasanian Babylonia. Leiden, 1975.
The Monarchic Principle: Studies in Jewish Self-government in Antiquity. Tübingen, 1994.
Elements of Ancient Jewish Nationalism. Cambridge, 2006.
“The Poll Tax in Sasanian Babylonia: The Talmudic Evidence,” The Journal for the Economic and Social History of the Orient XXII (1979), pp. 233-295.
“Medinat Hayam-The Coastal Plain,” Tarbiz 63 (1994-5), pp. 1-25.
“Tannaitic Traditions and Dating Documents in Second Temple Judah,” Halakhah in Light of Epigraphy, ed. A.I. Baumgarten, H. Eshel , R. Katzoff and S. Tzoref, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2011, pp. 185-202.